Category Archives: Health

Does Your Loved One Need a Memory Care Home? Factors to Consider

Dementia is one of the diseases that might be difficult to manage once the symptoms have progressed. Assisted living seems like a good option for dementia victims, but they are no longer fit for such homes when the symptoms progress. If the patients exhibit extreme symptoms, they are better off in a memory care facility.

Here are some factors that you should look for to determine when to take your loved one to a memory care home.

Challenges during transportation

Your loved one might find it difficult to drive around or go to familiar places. As dementia progresses, the chances of memory lapse increase, making it challenging for a person to remember familiar places. The person might also claim to feel overwhelmed by the presence of many people. This means they will have challenges moving around on their own. They may also experience a cognitive decline, a condition that reduces mobility. In the extreme cases of dementia, your loved one might lose their sight and experience confusion, hence making it difficult for them to respond to stimulus. The condition gets worse when the person starts wandering around since they can get lost. An occurrence of any of these signs is a red alert that you should take them to memory care.

Can no longer manage money

Dementia places its victims at the risk of financial fraud. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the spending patterns of your loved ones to note any changes that might be alarming. Among such changes is a case where the person begins to overspend. Also, when they start forgetting to pay their bills, it is an alert that they need specialized care. As the symptoms of dementia progress, they leave the individual vulnerable to memory lapse, a condition that can highly affect individual spending behavior. Be on the lookout for any erratic behavior regarding the person’s financial activities. Whenever you notice major changes, it is time to take your loved one to a memory care facility.

Increase in the rate of forgetfulness

Forgetfulness is one of the main characteristics of dementia. Forgetting minor things might not be a problem for an individual. However, as the disease progresses, people tend to forget important things that can greatly impact their lives. When such forgetfulness kicks in, it is time for the individual to be taken to a memory home. Among the signs to look out for is the person forgetting the directions to their home or forgetting their name. The symptoms become alarming when the individual forgets their location, yet they have been wandering. In such a case, the person might go missing, which is more traumatizing to their loved ones.

Rare problems

A dementia patient is expected o express the behavior of forgetfulness. However, if you live with them, you ought to be keen to notice any rare problems that they might exhibit. For instance, the person might lock themselves in the house and not see a big deal about it. If the room cannot be unlocked from outside, the patient might be in danger. It becomes worse if they are already showing severe memory loss. Another rare behavior to look out for is the frequency at which they take their medication. If they are unable to follow the doctor’s prescription, they risk overdosing or underdosing.

If you notice that your loved one is experiencing any of these signs, it is necessary to take them to a memory care home where they will be adequately cared for. Some people prefer independent living arrangements for their loved ones. However, this is not a good option if the person is showing signs of severe dementia.

When You Need a Compounding Pharmacy

You might not have heard of a compounding pharmacy because most people do not require this specialty service. In the US, pharmacists fill about 4.5 billion prescriptions annually. It wasn’t always that way. At one time, all prescriptions were filled this way

Until the 1938 passage of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, pharmacists compounded most prescriptions – about 250 million each year. When pharmaceutical manufacturing developed, the public began to purchase readymade prescription drugs and over the counter medications, too. This made the job of pharmacists easier, but many people found they still needed some prescriptions compounded.

Compounding Defined

Compounding simply refers to the process of mixing pharmaceutical-grade raw materials to create a custom prescription issued by a physician. Every year, pharmacists compound 30 to 40 million prescriptions. Many reasons exist for a patient needing a compounded prescription.

  • a necessary medication gets discontinued,
  • the patient has an allergy to a binder, dye, or preservative in the manufactured medication,
  • the patient cannot take the manufactured medication in the form in which it is made such as a capsule,
  • the patient needs a different dosage than pharmaceutical companies manufacture,
  • the patient requires a custom medication because other drugs have failed,
  • the patient requires a different medication flavor to make it more palatable,
  • the patient is your pet who requires a custom medication.

Compounding requires special training for both the technicians and the pharmacists. They also need the right equipment as well as meeting specific facility requirements and special mixing processes.

Finding a Pharmacy

Not every pharmacy offers compounding because it requires certain special training, equipment, and facilities. Pharmacies like http://ubapharmacy.com/ offer compounding with online orders. The pharmacy facility is certified by the Pharmacy Compounding Accreditation Board (PCAB) standards and meets or exceeds USP Chapters 795 and 797.

Online compounding pharmacies have cropped up to address this need. They allow the upload of a prescription, processing at the long-distance facility, then provide shipping directly to the patient. The comprehensive and convenient process from start to finish puts these hard to find compounding facilities within reach of all patients and lowers the cost of the custom medications since the facilities can process a high volume of orders.

If you have a special need, such as requiring a gluten-free prescription, or an allergy to an ingredient, compounding can solve the problem. You can obtain the prescription you need by having it custom compounded.

Should You Have a Brazilian Butt Lift?

A Brazilian butt lift is a procedure that transfers fat to help augment the shape and size of the buttocks without the use of implants. During the procedure, extra fat is removed from the abdomen, lower back, thighs, or hips using liposuction, and then a portion of the fat is injected strategically into the buttocks. When the procedure is done with a talented cosmetic surgeon, it can improve the portions of the whole lower body, as well as help you lose fat in many common problem areas.

Why Have a Brazilian Butt Lift?

The proportion and shape of your buttocks are largely determined by genetics. While exercise and a healthy diet can help you tone the muscles and achieve healthy body weight, you can still remain unhappy with buttocks that are flat and don’t have any shape. This surgery can help you overcome the effects of genetics by reshaping the area.

You may want to consider having a Brazilian butt lift in order to improve lower body curves, decrease fat pockets on your belly, thighs, or hips and instead add to the fullness of the buttocks, help your clothing fit better, give you a more aesthetically pleasing and youthful shape. and enhance your overall proportions.

Are You the Right Candidate?

While the procedure can be a good option to improve the size and shape, there are some patients that are going to be better suited and it’s necessary to have realistic expectations about results. You may be a good candidate for this surgery if you want augmentation without implants, have good skin tone in the buttocks and hips, have sufficient fat stores in other areas that can be harvested, and are willing to avoid sitting directly on the buttocks for several weeks. Despite the name, it’s not a traditional lifting procedure and won’t address any loose skin in the area. If you are bothered by sagging or excess skin on the thighs or buttocks then there may be other suitable options.

Implants Versus Brazilian Butt Lift

The main benefit of the Brazilian butt lift is that it doesn’t use implants so the procedure has a lower risk and still gives you natural-looking results. However, if you are currently lean and don’t have fat to harvest then implants may be the only way you can get to your desired size. Implants may work better for some patients but there are added risks of having implants, such as a greater risk of having an infection. They also feel and look less natural when compared to the Brazilian butt lift.

Finding Your Surgeon

The procedure is complex and requires an eye for detail, along with experience in fat transfer techniques and extensive training. In order to get the best results, you want to ask about training and how many procedures he or she has performed so you know what to expect. Ask for before and after photos in order to give you a better idea of the aesthetic style as well.

How to Avoid Getting Sick During Cold and Flu Season

When you see the people around you are getting sick during cold and flu season, you may want to think about what you can do to reduce your chances of getting sick as well. Here are a few of the most important strategies to consider in formulating your defense plan.

Get a Supplement for Your Immune System

An immune system booster can enhance your body’s ability to fight infection. A homeopathic supplement is safe to take with your regular multivitamin, and it will give your immune system an edge when you take it prophylactically. You should take it for one to three months during cold and flu season. If you take it soon after the onset of cold or flu symptoms, it may help lessen the severity of a viral infection.

Make Smart Meal Choices

What you eat every day has a big effect on your overall health and every system in your body, particularly your immune system. If you eat a lot of unhealthy foods, they can slow down your digestive function and cause a lot of unhealthy bacteria to build up. If your digestive system isn’t performing well, you won’t be able to derive important nutritional content from any of the healthy foods that you’re eating. Consequently, you won’t be giving your immune system to vitamins and nutrients that it needs to perform at its best. While you should be able to eat foods that you like, you should strive to base most of your diet on what’s best for your body and not simply what tastes best. Avoid sugary or overly processed foods that can slow your digestive function down to a crawl. Eat foods that are high in fiber and rich in lean protein. Include fruits and vegetables with high concentrations of essential vitamins.

Practice Careful Hand Hygiene

A lot of cold and flu germs are transmitted on surfaces, so it’s important to be really conscientious about washing your hands. You should make it a point to wash your hands right away when you come home after you’ve gone anywhere. During your workday when it’s difficult to avoid frequently touched surfaces, you should make it a point to wash your hands reasonably often and avoid putting your hands on your face or your mouth.

Ultimately, taking a homeopathic supplement, making good dietary choices, and being careful about exposure to germs can help you fight off infection. Active steps to stay well can be the difference between getting sick or staying healthy.

A quick Primer on Marijuana Plants and Strains

As more and more dispensaries pop up in states that have legalized marijuana for medical or recreational use, the plant’s popularity is rising. Before going into a store to looking around, it will be helpful to familiarize yourself with different chemicals, plants, and weed strains and the impacts each can have on your body and mind.

Compounds in Marijuana Plants

The three main compounds in a marijuana plant are tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, and terpenes. THC is the psychoactive compound that produces a mental “high.” CBD has less of an effect on your mind. Both THC and CBD can be beneficial for relieving pain, anxiety, and nausea, but CBD is more useful for helping with mental disorders and THC with physical. Terpenes affect the taste, smell, and color of the plants.

Sativa and Indica Plants

There are two main types of marijuana plants, Indica and Sativa. There are also hybrid plants that have been engineered to mix the two. Some people believe that Sativa plants produce more of a mentally invigorating and energizing influence, while Indicas plants impact the entire body. Unfortunately, research in these areas has not been conclusive, and some people can be affected in the opposite manner as expected. As a result, weed strains have become a more precise way to shop for your desired effects.

Marijuana Strains

Much like apples and cherries, there are numerous weed strains to choose from and to decide, you should consider why you are using marijuana. Commonly desired outcomes include increasing energy, inducing relaxation, relieving pain, sleeping better, and boosting creativity. Here are some common strains for each effect.

  • Energizing – Acapilo Gold, Sour Diesel, Maui Wowie, White Widow, and Pineapple Express
  • Creativity – Maui Wowie, Golden Goat, White Widow
  • Pain Relief – Acapulco Gold, Afghan Kush, Blue Dream, LA Confidential, Purple Kush, Northern Lights, Sour Diesel, Bubba Kush, Super Silver Haze, and White Widow
  • Sleep – Purple Kush, Bubba Kush, Granddaddy Purple, Afghan Kush, LA Confidential, and Northern Lights
  • Relaxing – Blue Dream, Bubba Kush, LA Confidential, granddaddy Purple, Northern Lights, Pineapple Express, Afghan Kush, and Fruity Pebbles

You will notice that some strains can have overlapping effects – most notably that many are useful for pain relief, and there is a relationship with those that are helpful for insomnia and help you relax. Your local dispensary may not have precisely this list, but they will likely have numerous strains from which to choose. A well-versed “budtender” will help you find the best strain for you, given your desired impact.

6 Weight Loss Alternatives

Diet and exercise may be the most popular way to lose weight. However, after going on a strict diet and exercise plan, some may feel they don’t have the results they were hoping for. Or perhaps they are struggling to maintain the target weight they achieved. Along with a healthy lifestyle and smart diet choices, there are alternative ways that can help you lose weight and maintain weight loss. Below are six options that may help you lose that stubborn weight or sustain the healthy weight you’ve achieved.

1. Hypnosis

Hypnosis became popular in the 19th Century. It has been used for years for many afflictions and now some are trying it for weight loss.  Hypnosis may be effective in helping people fight their cravings or just adopt a healthier lifestyle. Studies have found hypnosis may improve the overall quality of life for the patient.

2. Injections

If you are adopting a healthy lifestyle and still find yourself having trouble losing weight, it could be a vitamin deficiency. Specific vitamins in the body may aid your metabolism. There are many fat burning lipotropic nutrients in mic injections that may help the body burn fat and remove a buildup of bile from your system, resulting in noticeable weight loss.

3. Acupuncture

Acupuncture has been recorded in Chinese history beginning around 100 B.C. This ancient Chinese therapy method can be used to help numerous issues. When it comes to weight loss, acupuncture has been found to increase metabolism and decrease appetite. Acupuncture has also been found to reduce stress levels. Lowered stress levels may help in weight reduction.

4. Meditation

Meditation is a great way to lower stress levels and get yourself in a positive mindset. When your body is in a state of relaxation, you may find yourself having fewer cravings for junk or comfort foods. It can also help curb your desire to binge eat.

5. Massage

Food can sometimes become a way you reward yourself after achieving a life goal or even after a stressful day. Instead of turning to food as a reward, consider scheduling a spa day. Having a day that is stress-free and relaxing, may help to curb the desire for junk food and may help your body recover after a long week.

6. Intermittent Fasting

There are several fasting programs out there that can help you lose weight. Some of the most popular fasting methods are ADF, which is alternate-day fasting. This is a fast in which you eat normally one day and fast the next. The 5:2 fast involves eating 500-600 calories two days a week and eating normally the other five days. Another popular fasting method is the 16/8 diet. With this plan, you only eat for an eight-hour window.

People have found that using one or a combination of these methods can help you lose weight. One of the most positive things about these weight loss methods, is that they can help you change your lifestyle for good, resulting in continued weight loss and weight management success. Don’t let your frustration stop you from reaching your ultimate goal, consider these options and see what works for you!

7 Essential Remedies for Heartburn

Do you get that burning lump somewhere between your stomach and your throat after a few bites of food? This condition, commonly called heartburn or acid reflux, occurs when the valve between your stomach and esophagus fails to close, allowing stomach acid to enter your esophagus.

The popular heartburn medication Zantac was recently found to contain a cancer-causing compound. With the resulting product recall and lawsuit, heartburn sufferers are seeking alternatives. A combination of the following remedies could reduce or eliminate your acid reflux symptoms:

1. Limit Certain Foods and Beverages

Heartburn can be caused by dietary choices. Your symptoms may be minimized if you avoid fatty and spicy foods, onions, tomatoes, garlic and anything containing chocolate or mint. Eliminating coffee, tea, alcohol and carbonated beverages will likely help also.

2. Be Mindful of How You Eat

When you overeat or eat too quickly, your full stomach can push digestive acids into your esophagus. Eating smaller meals more frequently and more slowly is less likely to cause this problem.

3. Keep Your Body Upright

Your body position affects stomach acids. Gravity is your friend when you are standing or sitting upright. Reflux can occur when you recline or lie down within three hours of eating. Using a wedge under your pillow or elevating the head of your bed can offer enough of an angle to prevent the problem.

4. Strive For a Healthy Body Weight

Excess body weight can prevent the esophageal valve from closing properly and allow acid to creep upward. Maintaining a healthy weight can prevent or reverse this common contributor to heartburn.

5. Try Over-the-Counter Medicines

While the Zantac lawsuit has resulted in fewer options for treating heartburn with medication, there are still some effective store-bought choices. Products such as Pepcid, Nexium, and liquid or chewable antacids can provide relief but may need to be combined with other remedies for lasting effects.

6. Refrain From Smoking

Smoking can relax the valve that keeps acids out of your esophagus. It can also reduce saliva production, which may contribute to the problem as well.

7. Try Some Home Remedies

The Zantac lawsuit has drawn attention to some time-honored home remedies for heartburn. Sipping a little diluted apple cider vinegar, ginger tea or Aloe vera juice can neutralize the acid. Dissolving a teaspoon of baking soda in water and drinking it slowly has also been effective at soothing the effects of acid reflux.

It’s no fun to be enjoying a great meal while dreading the symptoms of heartburn that can result. With a little commitment, these suggested remedies could make painful heartburn a thing of the past for you.

Compelling Research on CBD for Anxiety

As the popularity of CBD increases, more and more people are considering it as a viable treatment for many health and wellness related issues, ranging from loss of appetite to chronic pain. But one ailment, in particular, has gained a lot of attention: anxiety. While it’s great to know someone who feels like CBD has helped them, many of us would like to know what the research on CBD for anxiety has found.

Let’s discuss what anxiety is and how it’s defined. We will also take a look at some of the most promising research that surrounds CBD as a treatment for anxiety.

What is Anxiety?

In a recent poll, about 40 million Americans said they live with a type of anxiety. That’s nearly 18% of the population. There is no denying that many Americans live with a form of anxiety that can be detrimental to their well-being. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, anxiety disorders can be broken down into five main types. This includes generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, PTSD and social anxiety disorder.

In general terms, anxiety can be described as a feeling of fear towards a specific event or setting. If you get nervous before a job interview, for example, that’s a type of anxiety. However, it is only considered a true disorder when these feelings last for long periods of time and are brought on by a specific event or thoughts. Anxiety can hugely burden people who suffer it by filling their days with constant fear and nervousness. Many people with anxiety disorders tend to stay at home or avoid socializing with other people. And in extreme cases, it consumes the person to a point of depression.

Research Related to CBD

There are numerous studies that have shown a decrease in anxiety with the use of CBD. Effects range from a marginal improvement to almost miraculous, life-changing results.

Childhood PTSD

One such case is that of a young child that dealt with crippling PTSD as a result of severe trauma. The anxiety caused by her PTSD also brought upon a sleep disorder. The study was done in 2016 to test the effectsCBD on childhood PTSD. The results were shocking: After the use of CBD products, her PTSD was greatly diminished and the anxiety-related sleep disorder began to disappear. The grandmother of the child seemed very pleased: “My granddaughter’s behaviors are definitely better being on the CBD. Her anxiety is not gone, but it is not as intense and she is much easier to be around. She now sleeps in her own room most of the time, which has never happened before.” This story is not only  touching, but shows the effectiveness that CBD can have against anxiety.

CBD for Social Anxiety

Another study, performed in 2010, explored the efficacy of  CBD for social anxiety disorder in multiple people. The researches scanned the brain waves of the participants and found that blood flow to the areas of the brain associated with anxiety decreased when using CBD. This means that not only did it decrease anxiety, it also changed the way their brains responded to stressors. This study was interesting because it used scientific data in addition to participant reports.

There are many other studies that show great promise with CBD as a treatment for anxiety. The list just goes on and on. More studies are being funded every day to test these effects. The only downside is that there still aren’t any studies on the long term effects of using CBD. Some argue that there may be health risks associated with it, but for many people, it’s a far better option than heavy medications prescribed by a doctor.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

The National Institute on Drug Abuse has recognized that CBD has shown to be effective in reducing stress in rats. They see CBD as having a great deal of potential to not only treat anxiety but other ailments as well. Listed in their report are effects of CBD such as anti-seizure, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-tumor, anti-psychotic, and as well as potential to help with substance abuse disorders.

Side Effects

There can be some side effects of CBD use. Most of the research into this has concluded that many of the risks come from smoking. But, now we are lucky to have many different options for treatment using CBD. There are balms and lotions and high concentration oils that can be added to food or drink. It turns out that most of the side effects are very mild, especially compared to other other-the-counter and prescription medications.

Most interestingly, the FDA has very recently approved the first clinical drug to include CBD. The drug is called ‘Epidiolex’ and is used to treat people with rare forms of seizures. This is the first step towards getting the FDA to adopt CBD as a compound with real health benefits. While this drug is not intended for people with anxiety disorders, it is paving the way for more products to be developed and approved.

Some typical side effects of CBD use can include a change in appetite, changes in weight, fatigue, and diarrhea. It is also very important to note that CBD can interact with other medications, especially blood thinners. Do not stop using your prescribed medications and consult your doctor if you think CBD may be a better option for you.

Overall Conclusion

The use cases for CBD seem to grow every day. There still have not been any studies done to see the effects of CBD use over long periods of time. But for many people struggling with severe anxiety disorders, it can be a true game-changer. CBD has different effects on different people, so what works for one, may not work for you. However, if you are interested in a natural alternative to anxiety medications, a quality CBD Oil is a great option to try.

If you follow proven dosages and make sure CBD won’t have a negative interaction with prescribed medication, it can open a world of possibilities. Luckily, most of the research surrounding CBD is specific to anxiety, so there is no shortage of information out there. Anxiety can be a crippling disorder that really breaks people down. CBD has proven to be a worthwhile treatment for many things and anxiety disorders top the list.

Tips for Finding a Drug Rehab Facility

When someone dealing with addiction asks for help, it is usually a good sign. Addiction is a brutal cycle, and many people don’t feel strong enough to ask for assistance. If you are feeling trapped by the chains of addiction, reaching out for help is an important step toward recovery.

Once you ask for assistance, you’ll need to determine the kind of treatment and care that is going to be best for you in the short and long term. Therefore, before you dive into the first rehab facility you find, consider a variety of things to determine if it is the right fit for you.

Get Assessed

The first thing you should do is find a physician or substance abuse professional to perform an assessment. You need to figure out how severe your addiction is before you decide on inpatient or outpatient treatment. Some people will do better with an intensive outpatient program as opposed to residential treatment. A doctor or therapist experienced in treating addiction should be able to offer greater insight into beneficial treatment options.

Know What You Need

While there is a variety of centers for drug rehab in Costa Mesa, not all of them will have what you need. For example, not all centers are set up to handle dual-diagnoses, meaning that a facility can treat the addiction, but they may not be equipped to address the anxiety and depression that can go along with such a condition.

Understand if Medication is a Part of Treatment

For some opioid addictions, facilities may suggest or recommend the use of methadone or naltrexone to help you through withdrawals. However, other centers do not utilize these treatments and chose a more abstinent model. The option that is best for you depends on your specific situation.

Look for Experience

Next, when looking for a facility, try to find a center that has been in operation for some time with a proven track record. While some new facilities are quite capable, it is hard to determine their effectiveness without that history.

Don’t Get Bogged Down By Price

Many addicts may avoid seeking treatment because of the apparent cost of drug rehab Costa Mesa. However, know that price does not determine the quality of care. Some luxury treatment centers cost tens of thousands but are inundated with problems, while other centers that cost only a few thousand provide optimal care and service.

Don’t Fall for Guarantees

No one can guarantee your recovery. Rehab centers are there to provide you with the necessary tools to get clean and sober, but they cannot force you to use them. Your success is ultimately up to you, and any center guaranteeing sobriety is more interested in your business than your recovery.

Recovery is possible, and asking for help can be a significant first step. Now, commit to treatment at the center of your choosing.

Importance of Reliability in the Arizona 4 Assessment

The Arizona 4 is an Articulation and Phonology assessment that measures misarticulation in children aged 18 months to 21 years. However, in order to correctly assess articulatory deficiencies, the exam must be reliable and free from measurement error. Accurate scoring translates to confidence in clinical applications.

There are three approaches to estimating the reliability of the Arizona 4. These include internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and interrater reliability.

Internal Consistency

Internal consistency measures how well each item on a scale consistently evaluates the same trait. For internal consistency to be adequate, it needs to reliably predict the performance of the remaining subsets based on the subsets that have already been evaluated. If the exam lacks internal consistency, that means there is an error in measurement that is influencing the test results.

In the same manner as many other psychological and developmental evaluations, the Arizona 4 uses the split-half method to measure internal consistency. The presence of uniformly high reliability coefficients indicates a strong internal consistency throughout all age ranges.

 

The same methods for measuring internal consistency were used in clinical samples and yielded high-reliability coefficients as well, meaning that across both typically developing and clinical samples, the Arizona 4 is internally consistent.

Test-Retest Reliability

This method involves measuring the stability of test scores over time by administering the test to the same subject at two different times and then comparing the results. For the Arizona 4, an interval of two weeks was used.

 

While test scores should not change considerably due to underlying language abilities, they may change based on variations in performance or repeated exposure to test stimuli. The effect sizes are small across all tests, indicating little change in performance between times of administration. This shows that the Arizona 4 is reliable across multiple testings of the same subject.

Interrater Reliability

Examiners conducting the Arizona 4 receive parallel training and coding instructions that they use to make judgments about the quality of a subject’s responses. These subjective judgments could potentially affect the scoring of the exam if not made correctly.

The interrater reliability of the Arizona 4 is measured by the intraclass correlation coefficient. Word Articulation and Sentence Articulation were examined by having one administrator perform the exam while another administrator observed and scored their observations. The results indicated excellent agreement between the scores given, and thus, interrater reliability.

 

Interrater reliability of the Phonology test used three samples to measure the scoring by trained research assistants as well as examiners in the field. The first sample measured the research assistants and the results revealed excellent measurement properties among all trained research assistants who coded the data.

The next sample was the full Arizona 4 standardization sample and compared the coding applied by trained research assistants with that of field examiners. The results were consistent with the findings of the first sample and demonstrate reliable coding even with very brief coding instructions.

The third sample was from the Word Articulation and Sentence Articulation group and the results revealed excellent measurement properties consistent with what was found in the Word Articulation and Sentence Articulation studies.

The strong reliability of the Arizona 4 in Internal Consistency, Test-Retest Reliability, and Interrater Reliability indicates consistent and reliable results across all tests for accurate measurement of developmental speech and articulatory deficiencies.